Finally astronomers have unraveled the history of galaxies.
Astronomers in a new study have observed around 10,000 galaxies. Which are currently present in the Universe using a survey of the sky. Survey is created by the Herschel ATLAS and GAMA projects.
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After that the astronomers classified these galaxies into two main types. Flat, rotating, disc-shaped galaxies and large, oval-shaped galaxies with a swarm of distorted stars.
The scientists using the NASA/ESA Hubble and NASA’s Herschel telescopes looked further out into the Universe. They want to observe the early galaxies. According to the scientists, 83 percent of all stars formed since the Bing Bang were actually located in disc-shaped galaxies.
But they have also explained that today only 49 percent of the stars that exist in the are located in these disc-shaped galaxies. And the rest are located in the oval-shaped galaxies.
The results published in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. These results suggest a massive transformation in which the disc-shaped galaxies became oval-shaped galaxies.
Among the astronomers, a popular theory is that this transformation was caused by many cosmic catastrophes. This led to two disk-dominated galaxies were forced by gravity to merge into a single galaxy. The merger had also destroyed the disks and produced a huge pileup of stars.
But there is another theory too about this transformation. In this theory the transformation is a more gentle process. According to it the stars formed in a disk. Which is gradually moving to the center of a disk and producing a central pile-up of stars.
Professor Steve Eales of Cardiff University, UK is lead author on the study. According to him, many people have claimed before that this metamorphosis has occurred. But by using the Herschel and Hubble together for the first time the extent of this transformation has been accurately measured.
He also stated that galaxies are the basic building blocks of the Universe. And that is why this metamorphosis does represent one of the most significant changes. That happened in its appearance in the last 8 billion years. The professor explained that this study has shown to everyone that this kind of transformation is not exceptional. But it is in fact a part of the normal history of galaxy evolution.
The coauthor of the study is professor Asantha Cooray from the University of California. He stated that the study has been useful and is important. As it has established the statistics showing that almost all stars. Which were formed in spiral galaxies in their initial stages. And that now a large percentage of these appear to be dead, elliptical galaxies.