Images spotted in iOS 5 optimized for a an iPad Retina Display with a resolution of 1,536x2,048px.
Rumors of an iPad 3 started even before the iPad 2 got released. The next generation iPad has been rumored to use a new type of display. OLED was mentioned as well before. What is likely is that Apple will choose a display that gives the iPad 3 a retina display like the iPhone 4. The iPad 3 display resolution would be 1,536x2,048px, which is 4 times the pixels the iPad 2 has.
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New evidence that the iPad 3 will be indeed going to have a retina display was spotted in the Twitter framework in the iOS 5 SDK according to MacRumors. The Twitter framework contains large images that are only needed for a high resolution panel. As this is only spotted in the newest parts of the SDK (Twitter integration is entirely new in iOS) the iPad 3 is still far away. Some rumor reports see an iPad 3 release still this fall, but I do not see that.
The iPad 3 will come in 2012 giving the iPad 2 a product life of a year. Apple still has not caught up with the iPad 2 demand. Customers have to wait 1-2 weeks until their order ships from the Apple Store. Apple has to ramp up inventory for the cruciai holiday season. The iOS 5 and iCloud release will accelerate iPad sales this fall. I new iPad 3 is just not feasible for Apple this year given the momentum of the iPad 2.