This Is A 3D Map Of The Genome

Posted: Mar 9 2017, 8:21am CST | by , in News | Latest Science News

This is a 3D Map of the Genome
These are colonies of mouse embryonic stem cells, where cell nuclei are stained in blue. The DNA from the nuclei is sequenced to infer the relative positions of genes and their switches. Credit: C. Ferrai, MDC

New technique will make a three dimensional map of genome

Cells have to go through a tough task of packing long thread of generic material into nucleus. The process creates an interaction between the genes and their changes, affecting human health as well as the diseases.

Recently, scientists have developed a new technique that can make a three dimensional map of the complete genome.

Research team found that the genes get activated to make RNA and proteins, and then changes their role when molecules are not required. The gene and its change is a process called DNA sequence that exists apart on the linear genome, creating a challenge for the cell as the areas have to activate the gene.

The study also made it difficult for scientists to get answer of “how cells make a decision of which gene they should make active and when”? The answer depends a little on matching each gene to its sequences.

But, since DNA strands are very thin so it’s hard to detect them under microscope. So, scientists developed a technique named Genome Architecture Mapping, or GAM, that helps them detect the contacts.

The technique uses a process of freezing the cells and then cutting individual nuclei to thin cells. The small amount of DNA with each slice is sequenced. The research team developed SLICE, a mathematical model to study hot spots where interaction occurs between the strands.

The project was started by Ana Pombo, who began the project whilst working at the MRC London Institute of Medical Sciences (LMS) and is now based at the Berlin Institute for Medical Systems Biology, Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine in the Helmholtz Association (MDC) and the Berlin Institute of Health (BIH) and she is also the joint author of the study.

The technique will be applied to embryonic stem cells of mouse, and the author hopes that it will help scientists understand genes that get disturbed in serious diseases.

The study got published in the journal Nature.

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<a href="/latest_stories/all/all/20" rel="author">Sumayah Aamir</a>
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