Fully Synthetic Yeast Genome Design Is Completed

Posted: Mar 10 2017, 6:37am CST | by , in News | Latest Science News

 

Fully Synthetic Yeast Genome Design is Completed
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  • Scientists Manage to Accomplish Synthesis of a Yeast Genome
 

Scientists Manage to Accomplish Synthesis of a Yeast Genome

An international group of scientists has managed to make five novel synthetic yeast chromosomes. At least 30% of the genetic material of this primitive organism has been replaced. Seven documents were published regarding this research.

Termed the Synthetic Yeast Project (Sc2.0), the plans of the experts extend to completing synthetic versions of all 16 chromosomes by the end of 2017. The yeast used in this experiment is Baker’s yeast.

Rather in the manner of computer scientists, the researchers add scads of synthetic DNA or remove it from the human, plant, bacterial or yeast genes.

Among some of the worthy ideals are the eradication of diseases, making of drugs and creating foods that contain a ton of nutrients. Baker’s yeast has always been a favorite material for the scientists.

That is because its cells are similar to human cells. The path has been cleared for designer genes by this novel experiment. The main application will be in industry and medicine. It is all about the literal reprogramming of chromosomes in living matter.   

In 2014, the first synthetic yeast chromosome was formed. It had 272,871 base pairs. In order to even begin to imagine constructing a yeast chromosome, scientists have to plan on making many changes.

Some of these allow them to shift pieces of chromosomes. It is all a quick form of evolution on wheels (so to say). The removal of DNA code is another result of all this.

Yeast types can then be filtered to allow the best to be selected. The assembly of a synthetic yeast genome begins with the chunking together of smaller materials into larger ones. 

Erstwhile attempts involved the building of one chromosome before a second one could be made. Such operations caused delays in the assembly process.

Now scientists know better and are working on parallelizing the assembly of synthetic chromosomes. Labs spread throughout the global village tried to make different strains of yeast.

This was done in the same manner as various personal computers are connected with each other in order to construct a supercomputer. Great changes can be made to yeast genomes without annihilating them in the process. All this has myriad future applications.

The findings of this research are one of several findings of a package of seven papers published March 10 as the cover story for Science.

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