Spiders Know How To Sail On Water

Posted: Jul 3 2015, 12:50am CDT | by , Updated: Jul 3 2015, 12:52am CDT, in News | Latest Science News


Spiders Know How to Sail on Water
Tetragnathid spider is using silk as anchor.Photo Credit: Alex Hyde

This is going to blow your geek mind. Spiders know how to sail. They use their legs as sails to travel vast distances. To stop they use their silk as anchor. Nature still has so many surprises. We must do everything to protect it.

Spiders travel across water like sail ships, using their legs as sails and their silk as an anchor, according to new mind blowing research. The study helps explain how spiders are able to migrate across vast distances and why they are quick to colonize new areas. Common spiders are frequently observed to fly using a technique called 'ballooning'. This involves using their silk to catch the wind which then lifts them up into the air. Ballooning spiders are estimated to move up to 30 km per day when wind conditions are suitable, helping in their quest for new habitats and resources.

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This dispersal strategy, however, involves a significant risk. The airborne spider has little control over where it travels and could end up landing on water, which has been thought to be unsuitable for its survival.

Lead author Morito Hayashi from the Natural History Museum, London, UK, said: "Even Darwin took note of flying spiders that kept dropping on the Beagle miles away from the sea shore. But given that spiders are terrestrial, and that they do not have control over where they will travel when ballooning, how could evolution allow such risky behavior to be maintained?"

"We've now found that spiders actively adopt postures that allow them to use the wind direction to control their journey on water. They even drop silk and stop on the water surface when they want. This ability compensates for the risks of landing on water after the uncontrolled spider flights."

Sailing Spider using Legs

Linyphiid spider sailing using legs is shown. Photo Credit: Alex Hyde

The researchers collected 325 adult spiders belonging to 21 common species from small islands in nature reserves in Nottinghamshire, UK. The spiders' behavior was observed on trays of water in reaction to pump-generated air, and this was compared to their reactions on dry surfaces.

Many of the spider species adopted elaborate postures, such as lifting up a pair of legs, to seemingly take advantage of the wind current whilst on the water surface. This allowed them to 'sail' in turbulent, still, fresh, and salt water conditions.

By releasing silk on water, the sailing spiders also seemed to act like ships dropping their anchors to slow down or stop their movement. This suggests that the silk may sometimes work as a dragline for the water-trapped spider to attach to floating objects or to the shore. These behavioral adaptations could allow spiders to survive encounters with aquatic environments.

The research team also found that the spiders that adopted 'ballooning' behavior for airborne dispersal were also the most eager and able 'sailors'. The association between the two behaviors may indicate the importance of ballooners also being able to sail, which could be invaluable when landing on water.

Co-author Sara Goodacre from the University of Nottingham, UK, added: "Being able to cope with water effectively 'joins the dots' as far as the spider is concerned. It can move from one land mass to another, and potentially across huge spatial scales through the air. If landing on water poses no problem then in a week or two they could be a long way away from where they started."

Sailing behavior could also be helpful in non-ballooning spiders to increase survival near wet areas and after rainfall, including flooding events.

The research titled "Sail or Sink: Novel behavioural adaptations on water in aerially dispersing species" authored by Morito Hayashi, Mohammed Bakkali, Alexander Hyde & Sara L. Goodacre has been published in BMC Evolutionary Biology 2015 here.

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The Author

<a href="/latest_stories/all/all/2" rel="author">Luigi Lugmayr</a>
Luigi Lugmayr () is the founding chief Editor of I4U News and brings over 15 years experience in the technology field to the ever evolving and exciting world of gadgets. He started I4U News back in 2000 and evolved it into vibrant technology magazine.
Luigi can be contacted directly at ml@i4u.com.




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